When the penis becomes erect during sexual stimulation, the swelling of its muscular system exerts pressure on the pea-sized Cowper gland (or bulbourethral gland) found at the penis base. It then secretes a fluid that prepares the urethra for the transportation of sperm. With further stimulation, the spermatic duct muscles induce a peristaltic reflex, which draws the sperm out of the epididymis. 75 percent of the semen is secreted by the pair of seminal vesicles and the other 25 percent is released by the prostate gland. The secretion is thin and cloudy white. It contains numerous enzymes and hormones to aid and transport the sperm cells into the uterus. During ejaculation the contraction of pelvic muscles discharges the fluid from the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in a pulse-like motion. The 2 to 6 millilitres of semen produced contains approximately 400 million sperm cells.
The spermatic cords are the tubes that serve as the connection between the testicles and the body. The arteries, veins, nerves and lymphatic vessels responsible for the testicles can also be found alongside the spermatic duct within this cord. The vessels in the spermatic cord are coated with a tunica, a delicate connective tissue.
Yes, there is a spermatic duct connected to each testicle. Each duct is about 50 to 60 centimetres long and around 3 millimetres thick. Each spermatic duct merges with the seminal vesicles to form an ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate gland.
Sperm cells are produced in the testicles, at approximately 1000 cells per second. Here premature spermatocytes (sperm stem cells) separate, undergo cell division multiple times and develop into mature sperm cells. From start to finish, this process can take about 72 days. The unceasing development of new cells allows the male body to produce 3 to 4 million mature sperm cells per hour. The testicles are also responsible for the release of testosterone.
The epididymis hangs like a back-pack over the testicles. It is comprised of tiny tightly-coiled tubes, which measure at a length of about five metres when uncoiled. Sperm cells mature during their journey from the head of the epididymis to its tail. When sperm cells become too congested in the epididymis it can cause the tiny tubes to burst and the sperm cells to come into contact with the blood, creating a sperm granuloma.
The scrotum is the air conditioner for the testicles. The testicles require a temperature about 3 degrees lower than body temperature in order to produce sperm. The scrotum regulates this by loosening when it’s too hot, so that the testicles can cool down. When it’s cold, the scrotum contracts and pulls the testicles closer to the body for warmth.
Not enough information is known about the life span of sperm cells within the male sex organs to answer this question. Although they can survive for a few days while in the female body.
The muscle responsible for this is called the cremaster muscle and it runs parallel to the spermatic cord. If you experience a cremaster reflex, through sexual stimulation, intense cold or other stimuli, the cremaster muscle contracts and the testicles will be pulled upward. After implantation, the valve in the spermatic cord would also be pulled up within the inguinal canal. Whether this is unfavourable for your health, even if ascension only occasionally happens, can only be tested with a professional doctor.